Enhanced Skeletal Muscle for Effective Glucose Homeostasis

On January 2, 2014 by Physical Culturist

The Medical Orthodoxy is finally understanding what we’ve known all along. Muscle is metabolic currency! – Carl Lanore (SuperHumanRadio.com)

Yang J. Enhanced skeletal muscle for effective glucose homeostasis. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci 2014;121:133-63. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128001011000053

Abstract

    As the single largest organ in the body, the skeletal muscle is the major site of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in the postprandial state. Skeletal muscles provide the physiological foundation for physical activities and fitness.

    Reduced muscle mass and strength is commonly associated with many chronic diseases, including obesity and insulin resistance. The complications of diabetes on skeletal muscle mass and physiology, resulting from either insulin deprivation or insulin resistance, may not be life-threatening, but accelerate the lost physiological functions of glucose homeostasis.

    The formation of skeletal muscle commences in the embryonic developmental stages at the time of mesoderm generation, where somites are the developmental milestone in musculoskeletal formation. Dramatic skeletal muscle growth occurs during adolescence as a result of muscle fiber hypertrophy since muscle fiber formation is mostly completed before birth. The rate of growth rapidly decelerates in the late stages of adulthood as adipose tissue gradually accumulates more fat when energy intake exceeds expenditure.

    Physiologically, the key to effective glucose homeostasis is the hormone insulin and insulin sensitivity of target tissues. Enhanced skeletal muscle, by either intrinsic mechanism or physical activity, offers great advantages and benefits in facilitating glucose regulation.

    One key protein factor named myostatin is a dominant inhibitor of muscle mass. Depression of myostatin by its propeptide or mutated receptor enhances muscle mass effectively. The muscle tissue utilizes a large portion of metabolic energy for its growth and maintenance.

    We demonstrated that transgenic overexpression of myostatin propeptide in mice fed with a high-fat diet enhanced muscle mass and circulating adiponectin, while the wild-type mice developed obesity and insulin resistance. Enhanced muscle growth has positive effects on fat metabolism through increasing adiponectin expression and its regulations.

    Molecular studies of the exercise-induced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle also provide insights on auxiliary substances that mimic the plastic adaptations of muscle to exercise so that the body may amplify the effects of exercise in contending physical activity limitations or inactivity. The recent results from the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1alpha provide a promising therapeutic approach for future metabolic drug development.

    In summary, enhanced skeletal muscle and fundamental understanding of the biological process are critical for effective glucose homeostasis in metabolic disorders.

© 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
PMID 24373237 [PubMed – in process]
Related CitationsShow all
Transgenic expression of myostatin propeptide prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.
Myostatin inhibition in muscle, but not adipose tissue, decreases fat mass and improves insulin sensitivity.
Enhanced muscle by myostatin propeptide increases adipose tissue adiponectin, PPAR-alpha, and PPAR-gamma expressions.
Skeletal muscle and nuclear hormone receptors: implications for cardiovascular and metabolic disease.
Postnatal PPARdelta activation and myostatin inhibition exert distinct yet complimentary effects on the metabolic profile of obese insulin-resistant mice.

Comments are closed.

  • Random Posts

    • Strong Muscles, Strong Immune System

      The riper the age you reach, the worse your immune system functions, and it declines more each year. At a certain point it becomes so weak that a simple cold can mean the end. In 1999 researchers at the University of Bologna in Italy published an epidemiological study that suggests you can halt the decline of the immune system by doing resistance training.

    • 21 Health Tricks To Teach Your Body

      Whether it’s curing a throat tickle, resolving your headache in minutes or experiencing supersonic hearing, these 21 tricks are proven methods of fooling your body to achieve a desired result, whether that’s relieving pain or just having fun.

    • Do Your Cardio After Weight Training and Burn More Fat

      If you do weight training and cardio, you probably do your cardio after the weight training. This order of doing things is beneficial, as this way round the cardio training won't sap your energy for pumping iron. But according to a human study done by sports scientists at the University of Tsukuba, and published in Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, this order is also good for your cardio training as you burn more fat during the cardio part of your training.

  • Recent Posts